Prog. Theor. Phys. Vol. 24 No. 6 (1960) pp. 1231-1261
On the Structure of Extensive Air Showers. II
The Daily Telegraph Theoretical Department, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia
(Received July 19, 1960)
The structure of extensive air showers (EAS) is examined in detail, in particular in its dependence upon the characteristics of the high-energy nuclear interactions and the primary energy spectrum. The following effects are taken into account: (1) The fluctuation in the depth at which the primary particles make their first interaction. (2) The fluctuations in the first interaction made by heavy primary particles.
The main results are summarized as follows: (i) Shower curves are derived which are consistent with experiments, by a proper choice of the parameters involved in our model of the high-energy interaction. (ii) Under the assumptions that the relative abundance of various groups of primary nuclei at the top of the atmosphere is the same as measured at lower energies and that all groups have the same energy spectra as the proton spectrum, the calculated shower size spectrum is not inconsistent with the observed one even if there is a cutoff in the primary energy at about 5·108 Mc2 per nucleon. (iii) Under the same assumptions, the fluctuation in the ratio between numbers of muons and of electrons is, at sea level, almost entirely governed by the fluctuation in the depth of the first interaction of protons. At mountain altitudes the fluctuation in the ratio is governed nearly equally by both the fluctuations due to protons and that due to heavy nuclei. (iv) Under the same assumptions, the shower rate due to primary nuclei heavier than protons is, at mountain altitude, equal to or greater than twice that due to protons. (v) There is a possibility that high-energy nuclear active particles (\gtrsim1012 ev) in EAS initiated by a proton are as abundant as those in an EAS initiated by a heavy nucleus.
Additional remarks which would be useful for further inveatigations are also given.
DOI : 10.1143/PTP.24.1231
- W. Kraushaar, Nuovo Cim. Suppl. 8 (1958), 649.
- S. Miyake, Prog. Theor. Phys. 20 (1958), 844[PTP].
- K. Greisen, Progress in Cosmic Ray Physics III (1955) edited by J. G. Wilson.
- T. E. Cranshaw, J. E. de Beer, W. Galbraith. A. M. Hillas, S. Norris and N. A. Porters, Phil. Mag. 3 (1958), 811.
- S. Fukui, H. Hasegawa, T. Matano, I. Miura, N. Ogita, K. Suga, G. Tanahashi and Y. Tanaka, reported at Moscow Conference (1959), referred to as II.
S. Miyake, K. Hinotani, I. Katsumata and T. Kaneko, reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
T. Kameda, T. Maeda and Y. Toyoda, reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
- Kristiansen et al., reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
- L. Janossy and H. Messel, Proc. Phys. Soc. A 63 (1950), 1101.
- A. Ueda and N. Ogita, Prog. Theor. Phys. 18 (1957), 269, [PTP]referred to as I.
- For example, W. Galbraith, Extensive Air Shower.
- For example, B. Peters, Progress in Cosmic Ray Physics I (1952) edited by J. G. Wilson.
- Cited from figures given by S. Hayakawa, K. Ito and Y. Terashima, Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. No. 6 (1958), 1[PTP].
- T. E. Cranshaw, J. E. de Beer, W. Galbraith and N. A. Porters, Phil. Mag. 3 (1958), 377.
- M. H. Brennan, D. D. Millar and C. S. Wallace, Nature 132 (1958), 905.
G. Clark, Phys. Rev. 108 (1957), 454[APS].
G. Clark, J. Earl, W. Kraushaar, J. Linsley, B. Rossi and F. Sherb, Nature 180 (1957), 353[CrossRef].
- MIT Group, reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
- K. Greisen, reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
- J. Malos, reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
- See reference 4) where the values of previous works are also summarized.
- Y. Fujimoto, S. Hasegawa, J. Nishimura, K. Niu, M. Kazuno and N. Ogita, reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
- Perkins, Duthie, Fisher, Kaddoura and Pinkau, reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
- B. Edwards, J. Losty, D. H. Perkins, K. Pinkau and J. Reynolds, Phil. Mag. 3 (1958), 237.
- F. A. Brisbout, C. Dahanayake, A. Engler, Y. Fujimoto and D. H. Perkins, Phil. Mag. 1 (1956), 605.
- S. Hayakawa and N. Ogita, reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
- Andronikashvili et al., reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
G. Cocconi, V. Tongiorgi and K. Greisen, Phys. Rev. 75 (1949), 1063[APS].
W. L. Kraushaar, reported at Varenna Conference (1957).
J. A. Lehane, D. D. Millar and M. H. Rathgeber, Nature 182 (1958), 1699[CrossRef].
C. Milone, Nuovo Cim. 9 (1952), 637.
Vernov et al., reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
- For example, N. Dobrotin, O. Dovzhenko, V. Zatsepin, E. Murzina, S. Nikolsky, I. Rakobolskaya and E. Tukish, Nuovo Cim. Suppl. 8 (1958), 612.
Nikolsky, and Pomansky, J. Exptl. Theor. Phys. 35 (1958), 618.
N. N. Goryunov, A. D. Erlykin, A. B. Kamnev and G. T. Zatsepin, reported at Moscow Conference (1959).
B. Rossi, Rev. Mod. Phys. 20 (1948), 537[APS].
Citing Article(s) :
Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 27 No. 1 (1962) pp. 105-126
A Study on the Extensive Air Showers
Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 30 No. 1 (1963) pp. 71-83
Ultra-High Energy γ-Rays from Intergalactic Space
Satio Hayakawa and Yoshiaki Yamamoto